In the 10 years since returning to civilian rule, serious human rights violations have persisted in Brazil. Incidents such as the massacre of 111 prisoners in Sao Paulo in 1992 and the killing of seven children in the centre of Rio de Janeiro in 1993 have shocked public opinion at home and damaged Brazil’s reputation abroad. Increasing social violence and the country’s enormous socio-economic problems are often used to support the argument that human rights abuse is inevitable. However, AI is convinced that, on the contrary, the authorities could make significant improvements to human rights in Brazil, given the necessary political will. This report focuses on extrajudicial killings by police, “death squads” and by mob lynching. The killing of street children and adolescents is discussed. Other concerns discussed include torture and poor prison conditions.