보도자료

국제앰네스티: 세계 코로나19 대응 관련 공동 성명 발표

전세계 정부에서 코로나19에 대응하고자 디지털 감시 기술의 사용을 급속하게 확장하고 있는 상황이다. 이에 국제앰네스티는 인권을 보호하고 과도한 감시를 막기 위해 반드시 충족해야 할 엄격한 조건을 주요 비정부기구 100여개와 함께 제시했다.

  • 100개 이상의 전 세계 시민사회단체와 코로나19 대응 관련 공동성명을 발표
  • 디지털 감시는 인권을 존중할 때에만 정당화될 수 있음 피력
  • 팬데믹pandemic 상황에서 감시 기술을 사용할 때 준수해야 할 조건 제시

 
전세계 정부에서 코로나19에 대응하고자 디지털 감시 기술의 사용을 급속하게 확장하고 있는 상황이다. 이에 국제앰네스티는 인권을 보호하고 과도한 감시를 막기 위해 반드시 충족해야 할 엄격한 조건을 주요 비정부기구 100여개와 함께 제시했다.

이번 공동성명에는 국제앰네스티를 비롯해 액세스 나우Access Now, 휴먼라이츠워치Human Rights Watch, 프라이버시 인터내셔널Privacy International 등 100개 이상의 시민사회단체가 서명했다.

라샤 압둘 라힘Rasha Abdul Rahim 국제앰네스티 테크 담당 부국장은 관련하여 아래와 같이 밝혔다.

“코로나19 위기에 대응하는 전세계적인 노력에 기술이 중요한 역할을 하고 있지만 그렇다고 해서 정부가 디지털 감시를 마음껏 확장할 수 있는 것은 아니다. 최근 각국 정부가 임시 감시 권한을 포기하지 않으려는 사례들이 확인되고 있다. 세계가 이런 감시를 영구적으로 확장하려고 해서는 안 된다.”

“지금의 공중보건 비상 사태를 해결하기 위해 디지털 감시를 강화하는 것은 특정 조건을 엄격히 준수할 때에만 허용된다. 정부는 사생활의 권리를 무시할 수 없으며 새로운 조치를 도입할 때 반드시 강력한 인권 보호조치가 뒷받침되어야 한다. 정부는 코로나19 대응 전략의 일환으로 기술의 힘을 빌릴 때마다 이를 반드시 인권을 존중하는 방법으로 사용해야 한다”

한편 최근 국내 코로나19 대응에 대해서도 우려의 지점들이 확인되고 있다. 한국에서 재난 안전 문자를 통해 공개하는 감염 환자의 정보에는 환자에 대한 정보와 동선 세부 사항이 일부 포함되어 있다. 국제앰네스티 한국지부 양은선 팀장은 이에 대해 “코로나19 확산을 막기 위한 현 정부의 노력만큼, 그 과정에서 이루어질 수 있는 과도한 사생활 침해 역시 경계해야 한다”며 “환자의 신상 정보 및 동선 공개는 공중 보건상의 목적에 의거해야 하며 환자의 사생활이 과도하게 침해되지 않는 범위 내에서 제한적으로 실시되어야 한다”고 밝혔다. 또한 “이러한 조치가 자칫 감염 환자들에 대한 낙인, 차별로 작용할 수 있는 만큼 신중한 절차를 거쳐 필요한 정보만을 선별적으로 공개해야 함을 다시 한 번 강조한다”고 말했다.

 

COVID-19와 사생활 침해 관련 공동 성명서(국문)
성명서 보기
수신각 언론사 기자
발신국제앰네스티 한국지부
제목[보도자료] 국제앰네스티: 세계 코로나19 대응 관련 공동 성명 발표
날짜2020년 4월 13일
문서번호2020-보도-05
담당양은선 캠페인팀 팀장 (eunsun.yang@amnesty.or.kr, 070-8672-2935)

Joint civil society statement: States use of digital surveillance technologies to fight pandemic must respect human rights
2 April 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health emergency that requires a coordinated and large-scale response by governments worldwide. However, States’ efforts to contain the virus must not be used as a cover to usher in a new era of greatly expanded systems of invasive digital surveillance.

We, the undersigned organizations, urge governments to show leadership in tackling the pandemic in a way that ensures that the use of digital technologies to track and monitor individuals and populations is carried out strictly in line with human rights.

Technology can and should play an important role during this effort to save lives, such as to spread public health messages and increase access to health care. However, an increase in state digital surveillance powers, such as obtaining access to mobile phone location data, threatens privacy, freedom of expression and freedom of association, in ways that could violate rights and degrade trust in public authorities – undermining the effectiveness of any public health response. Such measures also pose a risk of discrimination and may disproportionately harm already marginalized communities.

These are extraordinary times, but human rights law still applies. Indeed, the human rights framework is designed to ensure that different rights can be carefully balanced to protect individuals and wider societies. States cannot simply disregard rights such as privacy and freedom of expression in the name of tackling a public health crisis. On the contrary, protecting human rights also promotes public health. Now more than ever, governments must rigorously ensure that any restrictions to these rights is in line with long-established human rights safeguards.

This crisis offers an opportunity to demonstrate our shared humanity. We can make extraordinary efforts to fight this pandemic that are consistent with human rights standards and the rule of law. The decisions that governments make now to confront the pandemic will shape what the world looks like in the future.

We call on all governments not to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic with increased digital surveillance unless the following conditions are met:

  1. Surveillance measures adopted to address the pandemic must be lawful, necessary and proportionate. They must be provided for by law and must be justified by legitimate public health objectives, as determined by the appropriate public health authorities, and be proportionate to those needs. Governments must be transparent about the measures they are taking so that they can be scrutinized and if appropriate later modified, retracted, or overturned. We cannot allow the COVID-19 pandemic to serve as an excuse for indiscriminate mass surveillance.

 

  1. If governments expand monitoring and surveillance powers then such powers must be time-bound, and only continue for as long as necessary to address the current pandemic. We cannot allow the COVID-19 pandemic to serve as an excuse for indefinite surveillance.

 

  1. States must ensure that increased collection, retention, and aggregation of personal data, including health data, is only used for the purposes of responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collected, retained, and aggregated to respond to the pandemic must be limited in scope, time-bound in relation to the pandemic and must not be used for commercial or any other purposes. We cannot allow the COVID-19 pandemic to serve as an excuse to gut individual’s right to privacy.

 

  1. Governments must take every effort to protect people’s data, including ensuring sufficient security of any personal data collected and of any devices, applications, networks, or services involved in collection, transmission, processing, and storage. Any claims that data is anonymous must be based on evidence and supported with sufficient information regarding how it has been anonymized. We cannot allow attempts to respond to this pandemic to be used as justification for compromising people’s digital safety.

 

  1. Any use of digital surveillance technologies in responding to COVID-19, including big data and artificial intelligence systems, must address the risk that these tools will facilitate discrimination and other rights abuses against racial minorities, people living in poverty, and other marginalized populations, whose needs and lived realities may be obscured or misrepresented in large datasets. We cannot allow the COVID-19 pandemic to further increase the gap in the enjoyment of human rights between different groups in society.

 

  1. If governments enter into data sharing agreements with other public or private sector entities, they must be based on law, and the existence of these agreements and information necessary to assess their impact on privacy and human rights must be publicly disclosed – in writing, with sunset clauses, public oversight and other safeguards by default. Businesses involved in efforts by governments to tackle COVID-19 must undertake due diligence to ensure they respect human rights, and ensure any intervention is firewalled from other business and commercial interests. We cannot allow the COVID-19 pandemic to serve as an excuse for keeping people in the dark about what information their governments are gathering and sharing with third parties.

 

  1. Any response must incorporate accountability protections and safeguards against abuse. Increased surveillance efforts related to COVID-19 should not fall under the domain of security or intelligence agencies and must be subject to effective oversight by appropriate independent bodies. Further, individuals must be given the opportunity to know about and challenge any COVID-19 related measures to collect, aggregate, and retain, and use data. Individuals who have been subjected to surveillance must have access to effective remedies.

 

  1. COVID-19 related responses that include data collection efforts should include means for free, active, and meaningful participation of relevant stakeholders, in particular experts in the public health sector and the most marginalized population groups.

 

Signatories:

7amleh – Arab Center for Social Media Advancement
Access Now
African Declaration on Internet Rights and Freedoms Coalition
AI Now
Algorithm Watch
Alternatif Bilisim
Amnesty International
ApTI
ARTICLE 19
Asociación para una Ciudadanía Participativa, ACI Participa
Association for Progressive Communications (APC)
ASUTIC, Senegal
Athan – Freedom of Expression Activist Organization
Australian Privacy Foundation
Barracón Digital
Big Brother Watch
Bits of Freedom
Center for Advancement of Rights and Democracy (CARD)
Center for Digital Democracy
Center for Economic Justice
Centro De Estudios Constitucionales y de Derechos Humanos de Rosario
Chaos Computer Club – CCC
Citizen D / Državljan D
CIVICUS
Civil Liberties Union for Europe
CódigoSur
Coding Rights
Coletivo Brasil de Comunicação Social
Collaboration on International ICT Policy for East and Southern Africa (CIPESA)
Comité por la Libre Expresión (C-Libre)
Committee to Protect Journalists
Consumer Action
Consumer Federation of America
Cooperativa Tierra Común
Creative Commons Uruguay
D3 – Defesa dos Direitos Digitais
Data Privacy Brasil
Democratic Transition and Human Rights Support Center “DAAM”
Derechos Digitales
Digital Rights Lawyers Initiative (DRLI)
Digital Rights Watch
Digital Security Lab Ukraine
Digitalcourage
EPIC
epicenter.works
European Digital Rights – EDRi
Fitug
Foundation for Information Policy Research
Foundation for Media Alternatives
Fundación Acceso (Centroamérica)
Fundación Ciudadanía y Desarrollo, Ecuador
Fundación Datos Protegidos
Fundación Internet Bolivia
Fundación Taigüey, República Dominicana
Fundación Vía Libre
Hermes Center
Hiperderecho
Homo Digitalis
Human Rights Watch
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union
ImpACT International for Human Rights Policies
Index on Censorship
Initiative für Netzfreiheit
Innovation for Change – Middle East and North Africa
International Commission of Jurists
International Service for Human Rights (ISHR)
Intervozes – Coletivo Brasil de Comunicação Social
Ipandetec
IPPF
Irish Council for Civil Liberties (ICCL)
IT-Political Association of Denmark
Iuridicum Remedium z.s. (IURE)
Karisma
La Quadrature du Net
Liberia Information Technology Student Union
Liberty
Luchadoras
Majal.org
Masaar “Community for Technology and Law”
Media Rights Agenda (Nigeria)
MENA Rights Group
Metamorphosis Foundation
New America’s Open Technology Institute
Observacom
Open Data Institute
Open Rights Group
OpenMedia
OutRight Action International
Pangea
Panoptykon Foundation
Paradigm Initiative (PIN)
PEN International
Privacy International
Public Citizen
Public Knowledge
R3D: Red en Defensa de los Derechos Digitales
RedesAyuda
SHARE Foundation
Skyline International for Human Rights
Sursiendo
Swedish Consumers’ Association
Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy (TIMEP)
Tech Inquiry
TechHerNG
TEDIC
The Bachchao Project
Unwanted Witness, Uganda
Usuarios Digitales
WITNESS
World Wide Web Foundation

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