국제앰네스티는 작년 신장(Xinjiang) 위구르 자치지구에서 발생한 소요사태에 대한 새로운 증언을 입수함에 따라 이 사태의 공식 입장에 대한 의문을 제기하며 독립적인 조사에 착수할 것을 중국 정부에 요청했다.새 보고서 ‘“정의, 정의”: 중국 신장의 2009년 7월 시위(“Justice, justice”: The July 2009 Protests in Xinjiang, China)’ 는 신장의 수도 우루무치(Urumqi)에서 소요사태가 발생한 후 중국에서 도망한 위구르인들에게서 입수한 새로운 증언들을 포함하고 있다.
면담자들은 2009년 7월 5일 사태 및 이후 정부의 강력한 단속 중 과도한 무력, 대량체포, 강제실종, 구금 중 고문 및 부당한 행위가 있었다고 진술했다.
국제앰네스티 캐서린 베이버(Catherine Baber) 아시아•태평양 부국장은 “공식 입장은 이 사태와 관련해 수많은 의문을 남겼다”며 “사망자 수가 정확히 얼마인가, 누가 그들을 죽였는가, 어떻게 일어났는가, 그리고 왜 일어났는가에 대해 너무 많은 의문을 품게 한다”고 말했다.
7월 5일 기념일을 앞두고 신장 내 단속이 강화됐으며, 이동과 표현의 자유 및 위구르 공동체에 대한 제한이 발생하고 있다.
베이버 부국장은 “중국 정부는 의문을 제기하는 이들을 탄압하고 외부인에 책임을 돌리며 공포감을 조성하는 것보다, 이번 기념일을 계기로 소요의 발생원인인 위구르 공동체의 오래된 불만을 파악하고 정식 조사에 착수할 필요가 있다”고 말했다.
New testimonies reinforce call for China to investigate Xinjiang riots
2 July 2010
Amnesty International has urged the Chinese government to launch an independent investigation into last year’s riots in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, after new testimony obtained by the organization has cast further doubt on the official version of events.
A new report, “Justice, justice”: The July 2009 Protests in Xinjiang, China includes newly gathered testimonies from Uighurs who fled China after the unrest, which centred on Xinjiang’s capital, Urumqi.
Interviewees described unnecessary or excessive use of force, mass arrests, enforced disappearances, and torture and ill-treatment in detention that occurred on 5 July 2009 and during the ensuing government crackdown.
“The official account leaves too many questions unanswered. How many people really died, who killed them, how did it happen, and why?” said Catherine Baber, Amnesty International’s Asia-Pacific Deputy Director.
Ahead of the 5 July anniversary, security in Xinjiang has been tightened, with reports of restrictions on freedom of movement and expression, and on Uighur community organizations.
“Instead of stifling inquiry, blaming outside agitators and generating fear, the Chinese government should use the anniversary to launch a proper investigation, including into the Uighur community’s long-simmering grievances that contributed to the unrest,” said Catherine Baber.
Eyewitnesses to the 5 July events confirmed that the protest against government inaction in the face of killings of Uighur factory workers in southern China started peacefully, but was met with violence by security forces. One 29-year-old woman from Urumqi said:
“…some 20 military vehicles arrived. The security forces carried automatic rifles and started to push the demonstrators. A woman walked towards them. A policeman shot her. She died. It was shocking, and I was very frightened. Everything then became chaotic.”
Rioting erupted later in the evening, particularly in the southern, Uighur, part of the city, resulting in numerous deaths and injuries. Chinese officials said that 197 people died in the violence on 5 July. Of the killed, 156 were described as “innocent people” who included 134 ethnic Han Chinese, 11 Hui, 10 Uighurs and one Manchurian.
A 22 year-old male eyewitness described the chaos and violence in Urumqi:
“At about 8pm [on 5 July], a group of Uighurs went past our house towards the south, smashing cars and other property. Then, about 30 minutes later there was another group of Uighurs. They were running, the army was behind them. The army shot at them as they fled, in the back. I think maybe three of them died, they were shot in the back.”
“It’s unclear whether authorities were adequately prepared to protect all citizens, and whether they had the right training and equipment to control the situation without resorting to lethal force,” said Catherine Baber.
Violent attacks were reported in the city throughout the week, with eyewitnesses reporting to Amnesty International that in some cases police failed to protect Uighurs attacked by Han Chinese on 7 July.
China has recently approved a development package for Xinjiang to promote social stability, but Amnesty International has urged the government to deliver both equity and justice in Xinjiang, and ensure broad community consultation in all future planning and implementation. “The Chinese government hopes to stabilize Xinjiang by directing money at the problem, but without a credible independent investigation of the Urumqi riots and underlying grievances, resentment and mistrust will continue,” said Catherine Baber.
Over a thousand people were detained in the aftermath of the unrest and possibly hundreds subjected to enforced disappearances. According to official statistics, at least 198 people have been sentenced, following trials that Amnesty International considers to have fallen short of international fair trial standards. Nine people are known to have been executed and at least 26 more sentenced to death.
Amnesty International has called on China to set up an independent and impartial inquiry into the human rights abuses committed by all participants in the Urumqi unrest, and to ensure a transparent judicial process for all those facing charges linked to the unrest, including fair trials in accordance with international standards.