국제앰네스티는 쿠바 정부에 표현의 자유 및 집회·결사의 자유를 제한하는 법을 철회할 것을 요청했다. 또 쿠바 당국에 의해 부당하게 구금된 모든 반정부 인사들을 석방하라고 요구했다.
이번 요청은 쿠바 당국이 인권 활동가 등 반정부 인사75명을 체포한 지 7년째 되는 날인 3월 18일을 앞두고 이루어졌다. 당시 체포된 75명 중 한 명인 올란도 자파타 타마요(Orlando Zapata Tamayo)는 감옥 환경 개선을 요구하는 단식투쟁을 수 주간 이어가던 중 올 2월22일 사망했다. 7년이 지난 지금 53명이 아직 구금돼 있다.
국제앰네스티 케리 하워드(Kerrie Howard) 미주국(局) 부국장은 “쿠바 법들은 표현집회·결사의 자유에 대해 수용할 수 없는 제한을 가하고 있다.”며 “쿠바가 기본적인 국제인권기준에 부합하기 위해서는 정치적법적 개혁이 반드시 필요하다”고 말한다. 쿠바 헌법 및 형법의 몇몇 모호한 조항들은 현재 기본적 자유를 침해하는 방식으로 해석되고 있다.
국제앰네스티는 쿠바 내 인권상황에 대한 독립적인 모니터링을 위해 유엔 전문가가 쿠바를 방문할 수 있도록 하며, 인권 단체들이 인권침해에 대해 모니터링 할 수 있도록 협조해 줄 것을 라울 카스트로(Raúl Castro) 쿠바 대통령에게 요구했다.
Cuba urged to revoke repressive laws and release prisoners of conscience
Wednesday 17 March 2010
President Raúl Castro also called upon to allow independent monitoring of the country’s human rights situation by UN experts and other human rights groups. Amnesty International on Wednesday called on the Cuban authorities to revoke laws that restrict freedom of expression, assembly and association and to release all dissidents unfairly detained by the authorities.
The organization also urged President Raúl Castro to allow independent monitoring of the human rights situation in Cuba by inviting UN experts to visit the country and by facilitating monitoring by other human rights groups.
The call came ahead of the 7th anniversary of the arrest of 75 Cuban dissidents around 18 March 2003. Fifty-three of those arrested continue to be detained. One of those arrested in March 2003, Orlando Zapata Tamayo, died on 22 February 2010, having spent several weeks on hunger strike in protest at prison conditions.
“Cuban laws impose unacceptable limits on the rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly,” said Kerrie Howard, Americas Deputy Director at Amnesty International. “Cuba desperately needs political and legal reform to bring the country in line with basic international human rights standards.
“The long imprisonment of individuals solely for the peaceful exercise of their rights is not only a tragedy in itself but also constitutes a stumbling block to other reforms, including the beginning of the dialogue needed for the lifting of the US unilateral embargo against Cuba.”
Several articles of the Cuban Constitution and Criminal Code are so vague that they are currently being interpreted in a way that infringes fundamental freedoms.
Article 91 of Cuba’s Criminal Code provides for sentences of ten to 20 years or death for anyone “who in the interest of a foreign state, commits an act with the objective of damaging the independence or territorial integrity of the Cuban state”.
According to article 72 “any person shall be deemed dangerous if he or she has shown a proclivity to commit crimes demonstrated by conduct that is in manifest contradiction with the norms of socialist morality” and article 75.1 states that any police officer can issue a warning for such “dangerousness”. The declaration of a dangerous pre-criminal state can be decided summarily. A warning may also be issued for associating with a “dangerous person”.
Law 88 provides for seven to 15 years’ imprisonment for passing information to the United States that could be used to bolster anti-Cuban measures, such as the US economic blockade. The legislation also bans the ownership, distribution or reproduction of “subversive materials” from the US government, and proposes terms of imprisonment of up to five years for collaborating with radio, TV stations or publications deemed to be assisting US policy.
Local non-governmental organizations have great difficulty in reporting on human rights violations due to restrictions on their rights to freedom of expression, association and movement.
International independent human rights organizations, including Amnesty International, are not allowed to visit the island.